This study was carried out to examine the Effect of Bad Road to the Economic Development of Imo State, using Ministry of Works and TransportImo state as case study. Specifically, the study aimed at discovering the effect of bad road on infrastructure in Imo state; find out the effect of bad road on literacy rate in Imo state; and examine the effect of bad roads on the rate of employment in Imo state. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 20 responses were validated from the survey. Regression (Dubin Watson) method of analysis was used to test the hypothesis. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that Bad roads in Imo state does not affects Literacy rate; bad roads in Imo state impedes Infrastructure, bad roads in Imo state hinders effective employment rate. The study recommend the Ministry of Works and Transport should endeavor to monitor constructions of roads properly to ensure that the right quality materials are used to construct roads to avoid easy damage. More so, bad roads in Imo state should be mended properly, urbanization should be encouraged, so as to attract investors and increase employment rate in the state there by developing the state economically.




1.1   Background of the Study

Economic development of any economy is dependent on the ability of the country to make effective and efficient use of available resources they have. One of the fundamental factor that facilitate the proper utilization of economic resources in the polity is the means of transportation. Transportation is the movement of people, goods and commodities from one location to another. This is done through variety of means or ways either by road, train, air, and pipeline. However, every means of transportation has its own challenges infrastructural wise.

Transportation is a wealth creating industry on its own inadequate transportation limits a nation’s ability to utilize its natural resources, distributes foods and other finished goods; integrate the manufacturing and agriculture sectors and supply education, medical and other infrastructural facilities. There is the need therefore to maintain and improve the existing transportation and build new infrastructures for a national wealth. The national wealth is the growth domestic products (GDP) which is an indicator or measures of the rate of economic growth. Transportation infrastructure is critical to sustain economic growth because people want to improve their standard of living and they see increased income as the way to achieve that goal, transportation system enhancement are in turns a means of maintaining or improving economic opportunities, quality of life and ultimately income for people in a particular region Lucas (1998).

Transportation also has a broader role in shaping development and the environment. Policy concerns in the next millennium will increasingly focus on the effects of transportation on where people live and on where businesses locate; and on the effects that these location decisions have on land use patterns, congestion of urban transportation systems, use of natural resources, air and water quality, and the overall quality of life Issues of urban sprawl, farmland preservation, and air and water quality have already pushed their way to the forefront of policy debates at both the national and local levels.

To make prudent decisions, policy makers must be equipped with the best information and analysis possible about the interactions among these various factors. Transportation becomes the back bone of any economy, especially countries like Nigeria, as such an anatomy of aspects relating to inefficiencies and lack of good transportation network in Nigeria coupled with low rate of economic growth (GDP) is crucial, attached to this is the poor government policy on transportation (Lack pf regulation of fees charged by private transporters, inadequate fuel.

Road transportation is one of the commonest means of transportation that people use regularly. One of the things that makes road transportation very easy and smooth is availability of good roads. Road infrastructure is considered to be a key prerequisite of social and economic development of any country. This is particularly true in Nigeria where the road transport is the most widely used mode of travel. Since the importance of the road network transcends national boundaries, the expansion and upgrade of the road network is vital to increase economic performance. Hence, bad road infrastructure poses hindrance to foreign investments in countries depending on them in terms of their economic performance and competitiveness enhancement.

Past investigations from researchers has demonstrated that road transportation is a significant financial development facilitator and furthermore as the foundation of monetary improvement exercises for nations. In a wide assortment of writing, specialists have upheld the connection between good roads and a general public’s political, social, and financial turn of events. All the more explicitly, road infrastructure speculations establish significant political, monetary, and social cycles that expand the wealth and influence of a nation, amplify markets, and lower exchange hindrances. This prompts increments in efficiency yields and upgrades in versatility and way of life for the general population.

The adequacy of road transport infrastructure determines a country’s success and another; failure in diversifying production, expanding trade, coping with population growth reducing poverty, or improving environmental conditions. A good road transport infrastructure raise productivity especially in the agricultural sector of the economy and lowers production costs. In Nigeria, the link between where the major production activities take place and where it is needed for final consumption need good road transportation that will bridge the gap, although the precise linkages between infrastructure and development are still open to debate. However, according to the World Development Report, 1994 infrastructure capacity grows step by step with economic growth.

Good road infrastructure services helps the poor contribute to environments sustainability. Clean water and sanitation, non-polluting sources of power, safe disposal of solid waste, and better management of traffic in urban areas provide environmental benefits for all income groups.

Integrated urban planning and transport policy can lead to more efficient use of both land and transport capacity with favourable environmental results. Expansion of transport infrastructure can reduce total pollution loads as congestion falls, average .Vehicle speeds rise, and routes are shortened. Road improvements can also encourage vehicle use and decrease emissions. Therefore, additions to infrastructure capacity are only part of the solution. Improved management of traffic and land use and promotion of non-motorized modes, cleaner fuels, and public transport are also important. According to Pisarski (2013), transportation is indispensable to economic growth and development of human settlement.

1.2 Statement of the problem

One of the key factors that play a pivotal role in a region’s economic growth is the presence of a reliable and efficient transportation system, this is mainly due to the fact that a well developed transportation system provides adequate access to the region which in turn is a necessary condition for the efficient operation of manufacturing, retail, labour and housing markets. Bad road has been an impeding factor that limit stress-free journey of people. Generation of revenue for government from travelers and traders. Many businesses that is located in places that have bad roads are been left isolated due to their unreachability by the consumers. Drivers and passengers face difficulties on the road while conveying goods and services tro and and fro there destinations.

Population growth of people in a particular location is determine by the rate at which they have ease to movement. Individuals face challenges with their work if they don’t have accessible road to their places of work. People tend to give up their jobs in an organization if they have difficulty going to work on daily basis. When such is done, the income generated as a result of the job they quit will reduce. Investors finds it difficult to establish companies in areas that are not motorable and easily accessible to people as a result of bad road.

When bad roads hinders investment that create employment and improves the living standard of people in a particular location, this affects the rate of income people make and in-turn degenerates the revenue of government. Road infrastructure has been seen as a major cause of urbanization. When a particular place or area is not accessible to people, the development of that area infrastructurally will be impeded. Reduction in the level of consumption to services rendered in those areas will reduce. People migrate from rural to urban areas either for employment opportunities, urbanization, better infrastructure, all to better their loving conditions. When these factors are not achieved as a result of lack of access to good road, they affect the rate of income and taxes that government generate hence affecting economic growth and development.

In Nigeria, Imo State for example, lack of good roads in the rural areas has affected agricultural development and food distribution. According to Fakayode (2004), agricultural products are mostly traded in small markets around the vicinity of farmers farm and this reduces the selling price of farm products compared to the price traded for them in bigger markets due to lack of good motorable roads. This study hence seeks to examine the effect of bad road to the economic development of Imo state.

1.3 Objective of the study

The primary objective of the study is to examine the effect of bad road to the economic development of Imo State. Specifically, to:

Discover the effect of bad road on infrastructure in Imo state.

Find out the effect of bad road on literacy rate in Imo state.

Examine the effect of bad roads on the rate of employment in Imo state.

1.4 Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions:

What is the effect of bad road on Infrastructure in Imo state?

What is the effect of bad road on Literacy rate?

What is the effect of bad roads on rate of employment?

1.5 Statement of Hypotheses

The following hypothesis was generated to be tested in this study:

Ho1: Bad roads in Imo state affects Literacy rate.

H02: Bad roads in Imo state impedes Infrastructure.

H03: Bad roads in Imo state hinders effective employment rate.

1.6 Significance of the study

This study on the effect of bad road to economic development in Imo State will first be of immense benefit to the residents and indigenes of Imo state to the how bad roads in their state has hampered on the growth and development of the state economically. Also, the study will bring to the notice of policy makers and government to see the need to repair bad roads in the state and create good and motorable road networks to enable people transact businesses in and out of the state without difficulties hence, generating good revenue for the state.

Furthermore, this study will add to existing literature and serve as reference material to students, scholars and researchers who might want to carry out further research in this topic or related domain in the future.

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the study

This study focuses on the effect of bad road to the economic development of Imo State, using Imo state as the case study. The study seeks to investigate into the causes of bad roads in Imo state, find out the extent bad road has hindered good revenue generation for the government of Imo state, discover if bad road has limited economic development in Imo state, then recommend achievable ways to remedy the issue of bad road in Imo state. This study is delimited to only 20 selected workers from Ministry of Works and transport, Imo state.

Finance, time, availability of materials were the major constraint the researcher encountered while carrying out this study.

1.8 Organization of the Study

To achieve the purpose of this research, this study is sub-divided into five inter-connected chapters.

Chapter one deals starts by giving a background to the study, statement of the research problem, objectives of the study, research questions, statement of hypothesis, significance of the study, scope/delimitation of the study, organization and definition of terms.

Chapter two delves in the review of related literature, conceptual review, theoretical review, empirical review, then summary.

Chapter three further exposes the different methodology used to analyse the study ranging from research design, model specification, sources of data, method of data analysis, research instrument, reliability of the study and test of significance.

Chapter four deals with presentation, interpretation and analysis of data, while the chapter five, being the last chapter, deals with summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendations.

1.8 Definition of terms

Road: A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.

Bad Road: A difficult or poor quality or a low standard road, route, or way on land that allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.

Economic Development: the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.